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Lymphoma Cancer

kidney-overview

Overview

Lymphoma occurs in lymphatic system cells that form a part of the immune system. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur in men than in women. According to the Globocan 2018 report, the incidence and the mortality rates of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma was reported to be 2.4% and 3.4% respectively in India.

Types of Lymphoma Cancer

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

This type of lymphoma starts forming in the lymphocytes i.e. white blood cells. The cancerous cells in Hodgkin lymphoma are called as Reed-Sternberg cells.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

It starts forming in the lymphatic system.

Risk Factors

Age

The risk of NHL increases with age. The most common subtypes occur most often in people in their 60s and 70s.

Gender

Men are very slightly more likely to develop NHL than women.

Bacterial infections

Some types of NHL are associated with specific infections. For example, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is thought to be caused by an infection with bacteria called Helicobacter pylori.

Viruses

Viruses cause some types of NHL. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the virus that causes mononucleosis, also known as "mono," and it is associated with some types of NHL.

Immune deficiency disorders

Immune system disorders, such as HIV/AIDS, increase the risk of NHL, especially the aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

Autoimmune disorders

People with autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren syndrome, have an increased risk of developing certain types of NHL.

Signs & symptoms

Lymph node inflammation

Fever & chills

Weight loss

Itching

Lack of energy

Sweating

Diagnosis

Biopsy

Biopsies to diagnose both types of lymphoma- include needle biopsy and excisional or incisional biopsy. The biopsy samples are then tested by histopathological exams, immunohistochemistry, and DNA tests.

Imaging Studies

Certain imaging tests such as chest X-Ray, CT scan, MRI scan, ultrasound, PET scan done to diagnose Hodgkin & Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

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References