Leukemia Cancer



Leukemia is a cancer found of the blood and bone marrow and is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells. Leukemia can be either acute or chronic. Chronic leukemia progresses more slowly than acute leukemia [1]. According to the Globocan 2018 report, the incidence rate and mortality rate was reported to be 3.6% and 4.1% respectively. There are42055 new cases and 32471 deaths reported from leukemia in India in 2018.

Types of Leukemia Cancer

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

Acute lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia is sometimes called ALL. It starts in the bone marrow where blood cells are made. It is more common in children than in adults.

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia is also called acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, or sometimes just AML. It is most common in older people.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that starts in white blood cells (called lymphocytes) in the bone marrow. CLL mainly affects older adults and accounts for about one-third of all leukemias.

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

Also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia- is a type of cancer that starts in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow and invades the blood. About 15% of leukemias in adults are CML.

Risk Factors

Exposure to high levels of radiation

Repeated exposure to certain chemicals (for example, benzene)


Down Syndrome

A strong family history of leukemia

Signs & symptoms

Fever, chills, night sweats and other flu-like symptoms

Weakness and fatigue

Swollen or bleeding gums


Enlarged liver and spleen

Swollen tonsils

Bone pain


Pinhead-size red spots on the skin

Weight loss


Complete Blood count

A CBC measures the number and quality of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Leukemia and other conditions can cause abnormally high/low blood cell counts.

Blood chemistry tests

Blood chemistry tests measure certain chemicals in the blood. They help doctors find problems with the liver or kidney that are sites for the spread of leukemia cells. They can also help doctors stage leukemia.


Immunophenotyping is the study of proteins expressed by cells. It is used to determine the type or subtype of leukemia.

Lymph node biopsy

A lymph node biopsy is a type of surgical biopsy. It is called an excisional biopsy because the lymph node is completely removed. Sometimes the lymphnode cannot be completely removed; instead a portion of the lymph node is removed as a core biopsy.