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Endometrial Cancer

kidney-overview

Overview

Endometrial cancer is the most widespread gynaecological tumour in advanced nations, and its incidence is heightening. The most often occurring subtype is endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Victims are often diagnosed when the disease is still constrained to the uterus.

Types of Endometrial Cancer

The American Cancer Society documents that most cases of endometrial cancer are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are cancers that formulate from glandular tissue. The most popular form of adenocarcinoma is endometrioid cancer.

Less familiar types of endometrial cancer include

Uterine carcinosarcoma (CS)

Squamous cell carcinoma

Small cell carcinoma

Transitional carcinoma

Serous carcinoma

The different types of endometrial cancer are categorized into two major types:

Type 1 Tends to be somewhat slow-growing and doesn’t dissipate rapidly to other tissues.

Type 2 Tends to be more contentious and are plausible to dissipate outside the uterus.

Type 1 Endometrial cancers are more common than type 2. They are also simpler to treat. (Grey, H., 2019.)

Causes

Doctors do not know what results in endometrial cancer. Scientists are still researching the modifications that cause ordinary endometrial cells to become cancer cells.

Cancer occurs when genetic alterations cause cells to start growing uncontrollably instead of perishing at the typical stage of their life cycles. The mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. (Brazier, Y., 2020)

Risk Factors

Lifestyle and behavioural factors

Reproductive and Menstrual history

Genetic conditions

Cancer and pre-cancer

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Use of estrogen-only hormone therapy

Impact of medication and environment

Signs & symptoms

Alterations in the length or heaviness of menstrual periods

Vaginal bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods

Vaginal bleeding post menopause

Other possible signs of endometrial cancer can be like watery or blood-tinged vaginal discharge, pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis etc.

(Grey, H., 2019)

Diagnosis

Pelvic exam and Pap smears, which look for cervical cancer, can find a small number of endometrial cancers before symptoms develop.

Transvaginal ultrasound, in which the doctor injects a wand-like tool into the vagina. The instrument aims to produce high-frequency sound waves in the uterus. The contour of the echoes generated creates an image. This is called a sonohysterogram. If the endometrium appears too thick or jagged, the medic can conduct an endometrial biopsy in the office or the operating room.

The definitive test is a biopsy. If a biopsy verifies the diagnosis, the specialist will mandate imaging tests such as a CT scan or MRI; blood tests for CA-125, a marker seen both with ovarian and endometrial cancer; and a colonoscopy. The doctor may also order exploratory surgery (opening the abdomen) to deduce how far the malady has dissipated.

(Jhonson, T., 2019)

diagnosis-image

Prevention

Talk to your medic about the hazards of hormone therapy after menopause.

Ponder on taking birth control pills.

Maintain a healthy weight and do regular exercise.

Let your physician know if you have a past of Lynch syndrome.

References

  • Brazier, Y., 2020. What Is Endometrial Cancer?. [online] Medical news today. Available at: [Accessed 8 January 2021].

  • Brooks, R. and Fleming, G., 2019. Current Recommendations And Recent Progress In Endometrial Cancer. [online] Online library. Available at: <https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3322/caac.21561> [Accessed 8 January 2021].

  • Grey, H., 2019. Everything You Need To Know About Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer. [online] Healthline. Available at: [Accessed 8 January 2021].

  • Jhonson, T., 2019. Understanding Endometrial Cancer -- The Basics. [online] Webmd. Available at: [Accessed 8 January 2021].

  • Morice, P. and Leary, A., 2016. Endometrial Cancer. [online] The Lancet. Available at: [Accessed 8 January 2021].

  • Wright, J. and Lewin, S., 2013. Contemporary Clinical Management Of Endometrial Cancer. [online] Hindawi. Available at: [Accessed 8 January 2021].