Cancer is defined as a complex group of diseases that is a result of abnormal or uncontrolled growth of cells of a specific part of the body.
Cancerous cells destroy the organ locally and then penetrate and destroy the adjoining healthy tissues and organs. Certain cancer cells split from the primary tumour and spread to distant organs or tissues either through circulatory or lymphatic systems and form secondary tumour- this is known as metastasis
Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide. Globally, 9.6 million deaths were reported in 2018.
In India in the year 2018, approximately 2.25 million people were living with cancer and around 11,57,294 new cases are added every year.
There are 7,84,821 cases of death from cancer reported in the year 2018 in India.
This cancer starts growing in the skin or tissues that line internal organs. This further includes adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma.
This cancer begins in the connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, or blood vessels.
It begins in the tissues that make white blood cells such as bone marrow and then flow over to blood.
This cancer starts growing in the cells of the immune system.
Are also known as central nervous system cancers.
Cancer is caused due to inherited or acquired genetic mutations in DNA. Alteration of either of the three genes such as proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repair gene can lead to cancer. Certain external agents are also responsible for cancer. These include:
Exposure to Cancer-causing Substances
Formation of lump in any part of the body
Unexplained weight loss
Discharge or bleeding
Weakness or tiredness
Difficulty in swallowing
Changes in bladder or bowel habits
Blood, urine, and body fluids are examined in the lab to examine the level of certain substances in the body. The lab tests include examination of blood or tissue samples for identification of tumour markers.
There are a number of imaging tests performed to examine the part of the body where tumour exists through radiological procedures. These tests includes
CT scan: It utilizes x-ray machine for creating 3-D images of the organs of the body from different angles.
MRI scan: It utilizes a magnet and radio waves to create images of body in slices and these are further used to create a detailed image.
PET scan: It is a nuclear scan that creates images of that body parts which takes up glucose.
Ulltrasound: A high energy sound waves are used to create images of certain parts of the body
Biopsy is the ultimate test to establish cancer. It is a procedure done to diagnose cancer by removing a tissue sample from your body. This sample can either be obtained through a needle or endoscopy. The sample is examined by the pathologist in the lab and nature of tumour established.